In a study by Grov et al, men who met their most recent sex partner online were more likely to disclose their HIV status compared with men who had met their most recent partner at other public places [ 25 ]. Data were analyzed using chi-square tests to determine variation in the demographic characteristics and biases across the 11 cities and across the demographic characteristics. There were also more biases against physical appearance than most other biases with 4.
No Craigslist site exists for San Juan, so data were not collected. Domains not mentioned were coded as such in the data set. Intragroup stigma may result from either the internalization of homophobic stigma among MSM or the heterogeneity of the MSM community. However, the anonymity, invisibility, and lack of eye contact inherent in online interactions may also result in online disinhibition, allowing those seeking sex online to say things that they would not say face-to-face [ 38 - 40 ], including discriminatory or stigmatizing statements. Conclusions Despite an overall low reporting of biases in ads, these findings suggest that there is a need to address intragroup stigma within MSM communities. Biases were defined as an ad in which the author specifically reported not wanting a characteristic in a sex partner or an ad that used stigmatizing language. No ads contained reports of bias against height, transgender people, or HIV status. Online sexual networking venues provide a unique opportunity to examine this type of stigma. No identifying information was collected, and there was no interaction between the data collector and the subjects. Once the codebook was tested and finalized, a data analyst used the codebook to extract the data from the remaining ads. The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on http: Intragroup stigma among MSM may also exist based on other characteristics, such as sexual orientation, race, class, gender identity, and body size; however, these other forms of possible stigma have received less research attention. Abstract Background Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men MSM regularly experience homophobic discrimination and stigma. The majority of the ads had minimal information about author characteristics. Experiences of homophobic or HIV-related stigma have been linked with increased suicide ideation [ 6 - 8 ], depression [ 6 - 9 ], substance use [ 10 - 13 ], and HIV risk [ 10 , 12 - 15 ] among MSM. Results Biases were rarely reported in the ads. A useful source for examining intragroup stigma among MSM and between sexual partners is through Internet-based sex-seeking websites and apps. The alpha denoting significance was. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License http: Fisher exact tests were used when a demographic characteristic or bias was present fewer than 5 times. While some research has examined intragroup stigma, this research has focused mostly on HIV-related stigma. Results Sample Characteristics The self-reported characteristics of the ad authors are described in Multimedia Appendix 1. Objective The purpose of this study is to examine the presence and patterns of various types of intragroup stigma represented in Men Seeking Men Craigslist sex ads. Reported Biases Overview of Biases Overall, there were very few explicit reports of biases. This allowed for the correct identification of author characteristics. The online environment allows men seeking sex to negotiate location and type of sex and enables disclosure of information, including serostatus, prior to meeting.
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