The case dragged on for several months before they filed a third suit in December requesting that YouTube be shut down as long as the video is available to users. When all 1, videos were tallied — including the missing videos with very slanted titles — we counted videos had an obvious bias. Each individual video was scrutinised to determine whether it was obviously partisan and, if so, whether the video favoured the Republican or Democratic presidential campaign. Daniela Cicarelli, a model and ex-wife of soccer great Ronaldo, sued YouTube after a video of her apparently having sex in shallow water on a beach with her boyfriend was posted to the site. During the election, it acted as a YouTube user might have if she were interested in either of the two main presidential candidates.
His program also detected variations in the degree to which YouTube appeared to be pushing content. But on a handful of dates, Chaslot tweaked his program, starting off with three or four search videos, capturing three or four layers of recommended videos, and repeating the process up to six times in a row. The computer program written by Guillaume Chaslot overcomes that obstacle to force some degree of transparency. Cicarelli, ex-wife of soccer great Ronaldo, sued YouTube after a video of her apparently having sex in shallow water on a beach with her boyfriend was posted to the site. By putting a wall around its data, YouTube, which is owned by Google , protects itself from scrutiny. Each individual video was scrutinised to determine whether it was obviously partisan and, if so, whether the video favoured the Republican or Democratic presidential campaign. When all 1, videos were tallied — including the missing videos with very slanted titles — we counted videos had an obvious bias. Many videos clearly leaned toward one candidate or the other. Multiple recommendations between the same videos on the same day were not counted. In the end, this video was too difficult for us categorise. Some copies of the video have been taken off the site but users have reposted it. The data was probably influenced by the topics that happened to be trending on YouTube on the dates he chose to run the program: Missing videos and bias Roughly half of the YouTube-recommended videos in the database have been taken offline or made private since the election, either because they were removed by whoever uploaded them or because they were taken down by YouTube. Last year, a Brazilian court demanded Google disclose data on local users of its social networking site Orkut who had pages with content supporting racism or child pornography. For example, some might consider this CNN clip , in which a Trump supporter forcefully defended his lewd remarks and strongly criticised Hillary Clinton and her husband, to be beneficial to the Republican. The ex-Google engineer said his method of extracting data from the video-sharing site could not provide a comprehensive or perfectly representative sample of videos that were being recommended. On most of those dates, the software was programmed to begin with five videos obtained through search, capture the first five recommended videos, and repeat the process five times. The database appeared highly skewed toward content critical of the Democratic nominee. It was also often possible to find duplicates of these videos. About a third of the videos were deemed to be either unrelated to the election, politically neutral or insufficiently biased to warrant being categorised as favouring either campaign. During the election, it acted as a YouTube user might have if she were interested in either of the two main presidential candidates. The type of content recommended was, in both cases, overwhelmingly beneficial to Trump, with a surprising amount of conspiratorial content and fake news damaging to Clinton. Here are the 25 most recommended videos, according to the above metric. The court honored that request on Wednesday, but legal experts say the ruling by the Brazilian court could be difficult to enforce in the United States, where YouTube is based. A video falsely claiming Clinton suffered a mental breakdown was categorised as benefiting the Trump campaign.
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