Our aim in this paper is to ascertain the situation with respect to sex ratio at birth in Viet Nam over the past five years. Equally, available variables recorded in the survey are at times limited and of varying quality. Results presented here have been corrected for the potential bias caused by the number of smaller, commune-level health centres that were omitted .
The trend was detected more recently in other countries such as Georgia, Armenia or Azerbaijan where birth registration showed a rise in the masculinity of births over the course of the s . The objective of this study is to collate the most recent information on the number of births by sex in the country and re-examine the possibility of a gradual demographic masculinization resulting from prenatal sex selection. In terms of sample size, this survey is by far the best source to estimate sex ratio at birth as it is based on almost 1. The survey was repeated the following year and preliminary results are also available. The only available evidence pointing to the possibility of gender bias among Vietnamese parents is still indirect and limited to local data, small-scale surveys focusing on abortions and more qualitative field studies  ,  — . Received Jul 30; Accepted Jan 8. Materials and Methods Original data were obtained from sample population surveys in Viet Nam recording annual birth rates since of about , women, as well as from two successive birth surveys conducted for the first time in 1. Find articles by Christophe Z. Introduction The rise in the sex ratio at birth SRB, number of male births per female births has been evidenced in many Asian countries since the s  , . Beyond such comparison with China, late 20th century's Viet Nam therefore presents many traits typical of countries where sex ratio at birth has risen above normal over the last 25 years. The recent rise in SRB across Asia is closely linked to the entrenched preference for sons, the decline in fertility levels and the spread of new sex determination technology. However, so far interest in the sex ratio at birth in Viet Nam has to a large extent been frustrated by a lack of evidence. We will also investigate some of its social and demographic correlates to help us understand the diffusion process at work. In addition to its annual surveys, the General Statistics Office also initiated a special survey in across health facilities in the country to assess the number of births recorded in We will combine here the data from both surveys for and Starting from a level probably close to the biological standard of , the SRB reached in and in , a value significantly above the normal level. The recently added retrospective question on the entire birth history of women corresponds precisely to the way in which to avoid this bias in the study of past variations in SRB. Series from the and surveys were then averaged to yield a single annual series based on birth history. This recent trend is a consequence of various factors such as preference for sons, declining fertility, easy access to abortion, economic development as well as the increased availability of ultrasonography facilities. High SRB is linked to various factors such as access to modern health care, number of prenatal visits, level of higher education and employment status, young age, province of residence and prenatal sex determination. A second series is prepared from the raw data files provided by the GSO. Information collected refers to households, general population as well as women of childbearing age. An independent confirmation of these results comes from the surveys of births in health facilities which yielded a SRB of in — Data does not correspond exactly to the calendar year as annual sample surveys were usually conducted in April 1 or July 1 every year. From this source, two types of data of interest to our analysis were collected. Results presented here have been corrected for the potential bias caused by the number of smaller, commune-level health centres that were omitted .
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