The terms gender dysphoria and gender identity disorder were not used until the s,  when Laub and Fisk published several works on transsexualism using these terms. Michael Bailey , and Martin Lalumiere , who she says "have completely failed to appreciate the implications of alternative ways of framing sexual orientation. For them, their sex organs, the primary testes as well as the secondary penis and others are disgusting deformities that must be changed by the surgeon's knife. Male-to-female transsexualism has sometimes been called "Harry Benjamin's syndrome" after the endocrinologist who pioneered the study of dysphoria. Alternatively, I use gynephilic and androphilic to refer to sexual preference for women and men, respectively.
Harry Benjamin said in Benjamin gave certifying letters to his MTF transsexual patients that stated "Their anatomical sex, that is to say, the body, is male. What would be the situation after corrective surgery has been performed and the sex anatomy now resembles that of a woman? Michael Bailey , and Martin Lalumiere , who she says "have completely failed to appreciate the implications of alternative ways of framing sexual orientation. For instance, it is difficult to decide whether a transman erotically attracted to males is a heterosexual female or a homosexual male; or a transwoman erotically attracted to females is a heterosexual male or a lesbian female. For them, their sex organs, the primary testes as well as the secondary penis and others are disgusting deformities that must be changed by the surgeon's knife. The previous version, ICD, had incorporated transsexualism, dual role transvestism, and gender identity disorder of childhood into its gender identity disorder category. They are, post-op, pre-op, and non-op, respectively. True transsexuals feel that they belong to the other sex, they want to be and function as members of the opposite sex, not only to appear as such. It defined transsexualism as "[a] desire to live and be accepted as a member of the opposite sex, usually accompanied by a sense of discomfort with, or inappropriateness of, one's anatomic sex, and a wish to have surgery and hormonal treatment to make one's body as congruent as possible with one's preferred sex. The current diagnosis for transsexual people who present themselves for medical treatment is gender dysphoria leaving out those who have sexual identity disorders without gender concerns. Beyond Benjamin's work, which focused on male-to-female transsexual people, there are cases of the female to male transsexual, for whom genital surgery may not be practical. Gynephilic and androphilic derive from the Greek meaning love of a woman and love of a man respectively. However, these studies are limited as they include a small number of tested individuals. The term, along with gynephilia, is needed to overcome immense difficulties in characterizing the sexual orientation of transmen and transwomen. In , Hirschfeld supervised the second genital reassignment surgery to be reported in detail in a peer-reviewed journal, that of Lili Elbe of Denmark. Causes, studies, and theories[ edit ] This section is transcluded from Causes of transsexuality. For example, a trans man is a person who was assigned the female sex at birth on the basis of his genitals , but despite that assignment, identifies as a man and is transitioning or has transitioned to a male gender role; in the case of a transsexual man, he furthermore has or will have a masculine body. With regard to genetic factors, a study by Hare reported that trans women have a longer androgen receptor gene than cis men, which is less effective at binding testosterone, potentially preventing complete masculinization of the brain prenatal androgen exposure or sensitivity, or lack thereof, is an often cited mechanism to explain observed brain-structure differences. So a gynephilic man is a man who likes women, that is, a heterosexual man, whereas an androphilic man is a man who likes men, that is, a gay man. Those who are writing and researching in this area would do well to adopt his clear and concise vocabulary. Unless homosexual and heterosexual are more readily understood terms in a given context, this more precise terminology will be used throughout the book. Certain brain structures in trans women have been found to be similar to cisgender women's as opposed to cis men's, and trans men's have been found to be similar to cis men's, even controlling for hormone use , which can also cause trans people's brains to become closer to those of cis people of the same gender. Their psychological sex, that is to say, the mind, is female. Male-to-female transsexualism has sometimes been called "Harry Benjamin's syndrome" after the endocrinologist who pioneered the study of dysphoria. In , Hirschfeld introduced the German term "Transsexualismus",  after which David Oliver Cauldwell introduced "transsexualism" and "transsexual" to English in and
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