However, no one ever talked to me about personal and emotional relationships, media presentations for sexual involvement, or the social pressure of sexual relationships. At each time point, two bilingual English and Spanish female research assistants visited participating families in their homes. All youth completed the interview and questionnaire in English. Items were coded such that high scores reflect frequent conflict, a high degree of rivalry, frequent companionship and a high degree of warmth and closeness.
If respondents indicated that they had had sexual intercourse, they were asked whether they had ever been pregnant. Frequent companionship with an older sister was associated with increased odds of teenage pregnancy 4. I sensed it every time my mother talked to me about dating. Older sisters were asked additional questions about their pregnancy history. Having both a mother and a sister who had had teenage births was independently associated with an elevated risk of pregnancy 3. First, unlike earlier studies, ours examines the risk of pregnancy associated both with having a sister and with having a mother who had a teenage birth. Before I could be this trusting person to her, I knew I had to educate myself. If participants had a sister who was a teenage parent, they were instructed to complete the questionnaire for their relationship with that sister; if participants had more than one older sister who had had a teenage birth, they were instructed to answer in regard to the sister who had been pregnant first. I wish mine were. Yet at the age of seventeen, I became a mother. Only Mexican American and black families were enrolled, because those groups have disproportionately high rates of teenage pregnancy and births. As a mother, I know I am here to communicate with her in an open honest manner about every aspect of sexuality. THIS STUDY We used a sample of adolescent females—many of whom had a family history of teenage births and all of whom were studied prospectively from early adolescence ages 12—14 to late adolescence ages 18—20 —to address the following questions: Items were coded such that high scores reflect frequent conflict, a high degree of rivalry, frequent companionship and a high degree of warmth and closeness. A parent may not always know when a child needs a talk. RESULTS Compared with young women with no family history of teenage births, young women whose sister had had a teenage birth and those whose sister and mother both had had teenage births were significantly more likely to experience a teenage pregnancy odds ratios, 4. Thus, our study can provide a more accurate estimate of the pregnancy risk associated with having a sister who had a teenage birth versus having a sister who did not. The internal consistency of all scales exceeded 0. Scores were averaged and reversed so that a high score reflects low value of education. Finally, mothers indicated whether they were currently single yes or no. The younger sisters who were assessed at the last time point form the sample for the current analyses. Is having a mother who had a teenage birth associated with a greater risk of pregnancy than having a sister who had a teenage birth? Yet, my brother was handed condoms regularly. By design, all youth were living with their older sister and their mother at the time of enrollment. However, no one ever talked to me about personal and emotional relationships, media presentations for sexual involvement, or the social pressure of sexual relationships.
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