Adultery may be a factor to consider in a property settlement , it may affect the status of children, the custody of children ; moreover, adultery can result in social ostracism in some parts of the world. Those seeking to advance gender neutrality may refer to both marriage partners as "spouses", and many countries and societies are rewording their statute law by replacing "wife" and "husband" with "spouse". In the older custom, still followed, e.
Until then, partners were a single legal entity, but only a husband was allowed to exercise this right. In some cultures, it was paid not only to support the establishment of a new family, but also served as a condition that if the husband committed grave offenses upon his wife, the dowry had to be returned to the wife or her family; but during the marriage, the dowry was often made inalienable by the husband. With regard to annulment, such terms are not, strictly speaking, correct, because annulment, unlike divorce, is usually retroactive , meaning that an annulled marriage is considered to be invalid from the beginning almost as if it had never taken place. The second change was the drastic alteration of middle and upper-class family life, when in the s these wives began to work outside their home, and with the social acceptance of divorces the single-parent family, and stepfamily or "blended family" as a more "individualized marriage". In Islam, it is highly recommended that the wife remains at home although they are fully able to own property or work. She has the ever important role of raising the children and bringing up the next generation of Muslims. For example, the New Testament condemns divorce for both men and women 1 Cor 7: Children born outside marriage have become more common in many countries. Even if that is not so, it may still have legal consequences, particularly as a ground for a divorce. The arranged marriage is relatively common in traditionalist families, whether in Muslim countries or as first or second generation immigrants elsewhere. In recent times however the western culture has had significant influence and the new generations are more open to the idea of marrying for love. Because wives' property rights and daughters' inheritance rights varied widely from region to region due to differing legal systems, the amount of property a wife might own varied greatly. In Hinduism, a woman or man can get married, but only have one husband or wife respectively. In addition, Roman law recognized wives' property as legally separate from husbands's property,  as did some legal systems in parts of Europe and colonial Latin America. Among the last European countries to establish full gender equality in marriage were Switzerland,  Greece,  Spain,  and France  in the s. Marriage takes place on the basis of a marriage contract. Traditionally, and still in some parts of the world, the bride or her family bring her husband a dowry , or the husband or his family pay a bride price to the bride's family, or both are exchanged between the families; or the husband pays the wife a dower. However, this practice was curtailed to a great deal in many countries in the twentieth century, and more modern statutes tend to define the rights and duties of a spouse without reference to gender. Summary[ edit ] A white gold wedding ring and a single- diamond , gold -banded engagement ring. In the 12th century, the Catholic Church drastically changed legal standards for marital consent by allowing daughters over 12 and sons over 14 to marry without their parents' approval, even if their marriage was made clandestinely. Those seeking to advance gender neutrality may refer to both marriage partners as "spouses", and many countries and societies are rewording their statute law by replacing "wife" and "husband" with "spouse". In Roman law, first marriages to brides aged 12—25 required the consent of the bride and her father, but by the late antique period Roman law permitted women over 25 to marry without parental consent. A married woman may indicate her marital status in a number of ways: Honor killing , Stoning , and Crime of passion There is a widely held expectation, which has existed for most of recorded history and in most cultures, that a wife is not to have sexual relations with anyone other than her legal husband. In parts of the world, adultery may result in violent acts, such as honor killings or stoning. For some, this is a controversial practice, due to its tie to the historical doctrine of coverture and to the historically subordinated roles of wives. Islam[ edit ] Women in Islam have a range of rights and obligations see main article Rights and obligations of spouses in Islam.
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