Interestingly there was a significant change in effect sizes across time, with effect sizes appearing to wane across the years. Finally, although it is rarely the case that a meta-analysis will constitute an endpoint or final step in the investigation of a research topic, by indicating the weaknesses as well as the strengths of the existing research a meta-analysis can be a helpful aid for channeling future primary research in a direction that might improve the quality of empirical evidence and expand the theoretical understanding in a given field Eagly and Wood, A limitation to the coding of these and of other potentially relevant and interesting moderator variables was the scantiness of information provided by the authors of primary research.
In the past decades many school-based programs have been designed for the sole purpose of delaying the initiation of sexual activity. Other studied topics, such as methods of birth control and infection prevention, sexual orientation , sexual abuse , and factual and ethical information about abortion , varied more widely. Sexuality Education in Texas Public Schools  report where they found that: Support services for the Consultative Council were provided by a new Health and Human Relations Unit within the Special Services Division of the Education Department of Victoria and was responsible for the implementation of the Government's policy and guidelines in this area. References marked with an asterisk indicate studies included in the meta-analysis. Among the set of categorical predictors studied, parental participation in the program, virginity status of the sample and scope of the implementation were statistically significant. With confidentiality and mutual respect, students can talk to an adult who understands youth needs and what they should know about sexual life in conformity with age and maturity. Unfortunately, most of the research in the area of sex education do not employ experimental or quasi-experimental designs and thus fall short of providing conclusive evidence of program effects. Sex education in the United States Almost all U. To date, too few studies have reported success in involving parents in sex education programs. The Council had three major functions: The type of sex education intervention was defined as abstinence-oriented if the explicit aim was to encourage abstinence as the primary method of protection against sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy, either totally excluding units on contraceptive methods or, if including contraception, portraying it as a less effective method than abstinence. The ultimate goal is to foster mutual respect between boys and girls early on so that it impacts their conception of the world later on. They may believe that sexual knowledge is necessary, or simply unavoidable, hence their preference for curricula based on abstinence. Parental participation in the program, age of the participants, virgin-status of the sample, grade level, percentage of females, scope of the implementation and year of publication of the study were associated with variations in effect sizes for abstinent behavior in univariate tests. Some schools actively choose to deliver age appropriate relationship and sex education from Early Years Foundation Stage , which include the differences between boys and girls, naming body parts, what areas of the body are private and should not be touched unless the child is happy and gives consent. The test of model specification yielded a significant QE statistic suggesting that the two-predictor model cannot be regarded as correctly specified see Table IV. Categorical tests assess differences in effect sizes between subgroups established by dividing studies into classes based on study characteristics. They used non-standardized measures of effect sizes, calculated descriptive statistics to represent the overall effect of these programs and concluded that those selected programs delayed the initiation of sexual activity. A time period restriction was imposed because of cultural changes that occur in society—such as the AIDS epidemic—which might significantly impact the adolescent cohort and alter patterns of behavior and consequently the effects of sex education interventions. For example, large-scale studies often require external agencies or contractors to deliver the program and the quality of the delivery of the contents may turn out to be less than optimal Cagampang et al. The impact of lengthening currently existing programs should be evaluated in future studies. At the time of the People's Republic of Poland , since , it was one of the school subjects; however, it was relatively poor and did not achieve any actual success. The Netherlands has one of the lowest teenage pregnancy rates in the world, and the Dutch approach is often seen as a model for other countries. Since most of the studies did not report any effect size, it had to be estimated based on the significance level and inferential statistics with formulae provided by Rosenthal Rosenthal, and Holmes Holmes; The same data set, or a subset of it, may be repeatedly used in several studies, published in different journals, with different main authors, and without any reference to the original data source. These authors recommend this measure since it does not overestimate the population effect size, especially in the case when sample sizes are small.
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