A review of the medical literature of the late 19th and early 20th centuries found more than 40 reports of experimental infections with gonorrheal culture, including some where gonorrheal organisms were applied to the eyes of sick children. At a minimum, the registry should include ongoing studies as well as published studies. Cattell claimed that he did not know what the army had given him to inject into Blauer, saying: Southam , a Sloan-Kettering Institute researcher, injected live cancer cells, known as HeLa cells, into prisoners at the Ohio State Penitentiary and cancer patients. All of the subjects became sick and 13 died.
The GAO states in the report that although women were included in most of the drug studies reported, "for more than 60 percent of the drugs, the representation of women in the test population was less than the representation of women in the population with the corresponding disease" GAO, The San Francisco Chronicle , December 17, , p. The researchers were in a separate booth where they could hear, but not see, the participants. The committee proposes in Chapter 8 that this information be collected by IRBs; the current legislation concerning the establishment of a clinical trials registry for women's health proposes that such information be collected by investigators. The committee did attempt, however, to determine the extent of women's overall participation in clinical studies through a survey of the published scientific literature. Promulgated by DHEW, the regulations established the institutional review board IRB , a more formal version of the research review committee, as one mechanism for the protection of human research subjects. In May of , the FDA issued regulations that expanded access to experimental drugs used to treat serious and life-threatening illnesses Rothman and Edgar, All of the sources provide some kind of data on women's participation in clinical studies, but many do not provide the kinds of information that would allow the committee to make a judgment about the appropriateness of the reported study composition e. Health research that excludes women is bad science. Messenger Who volunteers to have sex in a laboratory? While these sorts of efforts have been undertaken in the past, they have not been wholly successful or enduring. Women as research subjects: It may save you much trouble if you publish your paper Johns Hopkins University Gazette 22 Subsequent regulations instituted to protect children and prisoners from research abuses have served to group pregnant women in the category of ''vulnerable populations," a designation that is reinforced by current regulatory language see 45 C. Cattell claimed that he did not know what the army had given him to inject into Blauer, saying: Coverage in newspapers and popular magazines, including the New York Times, Washington Post, and Washingtonian, has added to the level of interest in these issues Kolata, ; Okie, ; Herman, ; Stevens, ; McGuire, To test whether or not sulfuric acid , which is used in making molasses , was harmful as a food additive, the Louisiana State Board of Health commissioned a study to feed "Negro prisoners" nothing but molasses for five weeks. Sidney Gottlieb of the Technical Services Division. Army doctors in the Philippines infected five prisoners with bubonic plague and induced beriberi in 29 prisoners; four of the test subjects died as a result. Several well-known studies of cardiovascular disease have not included any women participants. Fidler at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee  Between and , researchers at the University of Rochester injected uranium and uranium in dosages ranging from 6. In another study, they gave 25 newborn babies who were under 36 hours old and weighed from 5. This report will include an analysis of data collected from all NIH institutes since the institution of the policy regarding the inclusion of women and racial and ethnic groups in clinical studies. Critics have claimed that the extrapolation to women of the male-generated findings of MRFIT, CDP, and PHS is potentially faulty because it ignores the importance of estrogen in women as an antiatherogenic agent Healy, and because the natural history of CHD is different in men and women.
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