The inclusion of Jews in tsarist army bands during the 19th century led to the introduction of typical military band instruments into klezmer. Klezmer music often uses "folk scales ," or scales commonly found in folk music, such as the harmonic minor and phrygian dominant. Further, klezmorim were usually itinerant musicians, who moved from town to town for work. It is also called the " Freygish ", a Yiddish term derived from the German "Phrygisch", or Phrygian mode specifically, the Phrygian dominant scale. Wood blocks were introduced by modern klezmorim to imitate recordings from the early 20th century that replaced snare drums—which tended to overwhelm the recording equipment of the time—with quieter instruments.
Terk in America is one famous arrangement by Naftule Brandwein , who used this form extensively. Most klezmer pieces are for dancing to, from fast to slow tempo: The clarinet started to replace the violin as the instrument of choice. Originally, klezmer referred to musical instruments, and was later extended to refer, as a pejorative, to musicians themselves. Klezmer melodies have recently been incorporated into songs by third-wave Ska band Streetlight Manifesto. The snare drum is the more "authentic" of the two. The Israeli hora derives its roots from the Romanian hora. Even so, klezmorim—along with other entertainers—were typically looked down on by Rabbis because of their secular traveling lifestyle. In order to preserve and promote klezmer music in Israel, Burstein founded the Jerusalem Klezmer Association , which has become a center for learning and performance of Klezmer music in the country. The orchestration used by Joel Rubin —one of the most experienced and knowledgeable contemporary klezmer musicians—represents a historically justified link with that of contemporary ethnic music ensembles of Romania and Hungary. They may also end with a Coda, a new melodic line that is accompanied by a change in the percussion rhythm and an increase in tempo. The resulting band now performs internationally. Yishtabach[ edit ] Yishtabach means "it shall become superb" in Hebrew from the daily morning services. This is not a coincidence; the style is meant to imitate khazone and paraliturgical singing. It is similar to the natural minor scale, but has raised fourth and sixth scale degrees, and is used often for the doina or dance pieces, like the Odessa Bulgar. Klezmorim based much of their secular instrumental music upon the devotional vocal music of the synagogue , in particular cantorial music. It has a frequent lowering of the 2nd and 5th. It is similar to the Arabic Hijaz maqam. It is related to Mogein Ovoys, above. Doina is an improvisational lament usually performed solo, and is extremely important in weddings. They had a great influence on each other musically and linguistically the extensive klezmer argot in Yiddish includes some Romani borrowings. The compositions of Israeli-born composer Ofer Ben-Amots incorporate aspects of klezmer music, most notably his composition Klezmer Concerto. Musicians began to track down older European klezmer, by listening to recordings, finding transcriptions, and making field recordings of the few klezmorim left in Eastern Europe. Much of klezmer music uses the Ahavah Rabboh scale such as Nigun Rikud, Tish Nigun and numerous freylekhs , although Mi Sheberach is prevalent as well. The earliest written record of the klezmorim is in the 15th century. A few older klezmorim—such as Leon Schwartz , Dave Tarras , and German Goldenshtayn —survived into the klezmer revival era and could recall some forgotten repertoire.
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