There are many reasons articulated throughout this paper as to why we believe that this conceptualization is necessary, but it is also worth noting that research has suggested that women experience similar levels of distress despite the type of perpetration tactic [ 97 ], suggesting the utility of including tactics of verbal sexual coercion on a continuum with other perpetrator tactics. And of those, only half result in guilty verdicts. Whether the age of consent is 15, 18, 21 or whatever, it creates an arbitrary situation where a person is considered competent to consent simply by being a year older.
Many interactions and exchanges that are considered acceptable or even beneficial when consensual are considered unacceptable, considered harmful or even criminalized when non-consensual. Just as someone can be a few days away from the age of consent, one can be just a few degrees of crazy or retarded from a court deciding the other way in a case about competence to consent. As such, there are several topics in this paper that we are addressing, if only to set the stage for future work. There have been many recent efforts to prevent and address campus sexual assault, most notably the adoption of affirmative consent standards. Research specifically focused on sexual activity resulting from VSC highlights the high prevalence of this form of sexual victimization on college campuses. Fourth, this paper included psychological, social, and legal scholarly work, however, in this paper there is an intentional focus on legal scholarship. Online Philosophy Club - Please tell me how to improve this website! Similar meetings had apparently been organized in more than countries for the same day. It took the number of sexual assaults reported annually by Statistics Canada, ,, and paired them with legal data that revealed only 15, formal complaints are made to police. By using victim reports on unwanted sexual activity experienced by victims [ 34 , 38 , 46 , 56 , 62 , 63 , 64 , 65 ], the methods used by perpetrators to obtain sex from unwilling partners [ 37 , 45 , 59 , 66 , 67 , 68 , 69 , 70 , 71 ], or studies examining both victimization and perpetration behaviors [ 39 , 72 , 73 ], sexual coercion has been defined in several ways. If a competent adult gives a child or pet a bowl of vodka or some poison it generally does not matter if the child wanted it or was coercively forced to consume it. For instance, while college students readily identify physically forced sex as rape and as unacceptable [ 86 ], recent research at one university also shows that they identify rape as something that can occur as a result of verbal pressure or coercion, or when one takes advantage of a person who is under the influence of drugs or alcohol [ 99 ]. Where statutes exist to that effect, the sex would be called statutory rape. Following the above sections, future research directions and concluding remarks will be discussed. In the case of children, the parent is usually the one who is expected and does take custody. Perhaps due to this widespread attention, in recent years, there have been increased efforts to address campus sexual assault, including the previous White House Administration identifying it as a national priority [ 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 ]. If a dangerous dog gets out and bites you, you can't sue the dog for the medical costs; you sue whoever was responsible for the dog. It's essentially always tantamount to forcing it upon the child. Furthermore, another study found that 9. Aside from that, I just want to know what you all think about what I have written above? Despite a relatively recent empirical focus specifically on VSC, not only are definitions, methodologies, and operationalizations of verbal sexual coercion inconsistent from study to study, but more nuanced studies examining the context, such as timing and tone of verbal coercion, have been lacking [ 32 , 56 ]. While many cases are relatively black-and-white, such as the typical adult doing something with an an 8-year-old or even an animal like having sex or buying that TV. In this way, they have separated coercive sex from unwanted or undesired sex [ 46 , 57 , 94 , 95 ]. Do you have any corrections, questions, comments or additions? Others scholars treat sexual coercion as distinct from forcible rape, but not as a continuum [ 24 , 33 , 56 , 82 ] or as a construct entirely separate from sexual assault [ 38 , 83 ]. The Ghomeshi scandal has highlighted the soaring rate of sexual assaults in Canada. However, even in theory the role of consent can be complicated.
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