The name "Tollywood" went on to be used as a nickname for the Bengali film industry by the popular Calcutta-based Junior Statesman youth magazine, establishing a precedent for other film industries to use similar-sounding names, eventually leading to the coining of "Bollywood". Since the s, the three biggest Bollywood movie stars have been the " Three Khans ": However, colour did not become a popular feature until the late s. Prior to the partition of India , which was divided into the Republic of India and Pakistan , the Bombay film industry now called Bollywood was closely to the Lahore film industry now the Lollywood industry of Pakistani cinema , as both produced films in Hindi-Urdu , or Hindustani , the lingua franca across northern and central India. Around that time, filmmakers and actors from the Bengali film industry based in Calcutta now Kolkata also began migrating to the Bombay film industry, which for decades after partition would be dominated by actors, filmmakers and musicians with origins in what is today Pakistani Punjab , along with those from Bengal.
He was the most successful Indian actor for most of the s and s. These films were often not the subject of critical acclaim, but were nonetheless major commercial successes. The Parsi plays contained crude humour, melodious songs and music, sensationalism and dazzling stagecraft. Some deplore the name, arguing that it makes the industry look like a poor cousin to Hollywood. The most successful Indian actor during the s—s, he is considered one of India's greatest and most influential movie stars. An early example of this approach was in Mani Ratnam 's Bombay Their critical acclaim, as well as the latter's commercial success, paved the way for Indian neorealism  and the Indian New Wave. The movement emphasized social realism. However, they demonstrated how this creation intersected with people's day to day lives in complex and interesting ways. Kapoor and Kumar are among the greatest and most influential movie stars in the history of Indian cinema,   while Nargis is one of its greatest actresses. Mil Gaya , Munna Bhai M. At this time, lavish romantic musicals and melodramas were the staple fare at the cinema. Ever since the social realist film Neecha Nagar won the Grand Prize at the first Cannes Film Festival ,  Hindi films were frequently in competition for the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival throughout the s and early s, with some of them winning major prizes at the festival. A fast growth in the Indian economy and a demand for quality entertainment in this era, led the nation's film-making to new heights in terms of production values, cinematography and innovative story lines as well as technical advances in areas such as special effects and animation. Pyaar Hai , Gadar: Kumar, who was described as "the ultimate method actor" by Satyajit Ray and is considered one of India's greatest actors, inspired future generations of Indian actors; much like Brando's influence on Robert De Niro and Al Pacino , Kumar had a similar influence on later Indian actors such as Amitabh Bachchan , Naseeruddin Shah , Shah Rukh Khan and Nawazuddin Siddiqui. Both these trends, the masala film and the violent crime film, are represented by the blockbuster Sholay , written by Salim-Javed and starring Amitabh Bachchan. Around that time, filmmakers and actors from the Bengali film industry based in Calcutta now Kolkata also began migrating to the Bombay film industry, which for decades after partition would be dominated by actors, filmmakers and musicians with origins in what is today Pakistani Punjab , along with those from Bengal. This decade also marked the entry of new performers in arthouse and independent films, some of which succeeded commercially, the most influential example being Satya , directed by Ram Gopal Varma and written by Anurag Kashyap. Kapoor followed the " tramp " style of Charlie Chaplin , Anand modelled himself after the "suave" style of Hollywood movie stars like Gregory Peck and Cary Grant , and Kumar pioneered a form of method acting that was similar to yet predated Hollywood method actors such as Marlon Brando. These films expressed social themes mainly dealing with working-class life in India , particularly urban life in the former two examples; Awaara presented the city as both a nightmare and a dream, while Pyaasa critiqued the unreality of city life. The term "Bollywood" itself has origins in the s, when India overtook the United States as the world's largest film producer. The writing of Salim-Javed and acting of Amitabh Bachchan popularized the trend, with films such as Zanjeer and particularly Deewaar, a crime film inspired by Gunga Jumna  that pitted "a policeman against his brother, a gang leader based on real-life smuggler Haji Mastan " portrayed by Bachchan; Deewaar was described as being "absolutely key to Indian cinema" by Danny Boyle. The s thus saw the rise of commercial cinema in the form of enduring films such as Sholay , which consolidated Amitabh Bachchan 's position as a lead actor. Dating back to , "Tollywood" was the earliest Hollywood-inspired name , referring to the Bengali film industry based in Tollygunge in Calcutta , West Bengal , whose name is reminiscent of "Hollywood" and was the centre of the cinema of India at the time. The three Khans have had successful careers since the late s,  and have dominated the Indian box office since the s,  across three decades.
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